Monday, March 28, 2016

Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection

Research Article


Minimum Effective Dose of Cattle and Sheep BSE for Oral Sheep Infection


Gillian McGovern , Stuart Martin , Martin Jeffrey , Glenda Dexter , Steve A. C. Hawkins , Sue J. Bellworthy , Lisa Thurston , Lynne Algar , Lorenzo González




Published: March 11, 2016 •DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151440




The minimum dose required to cause infection of Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ or ARQ/ARR prion protein gene genotypes following oral inoculation with Romney or Suffolk a sheep Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-derived or cattle BSE-derived agent was investigated using doses ranging from 0.0005g to 5g. ARQ/ARQ sheep which were methionine (M) / threonine (T) heterozygous or T/T homozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, dosed ARQ/ARR sheep and undosed controls did not show any evidence of infection. Within groups of susceptible sheep, the minimum effective oral dose of BSE was found to be 0.05g, with higher attack rates following inoculation with the 5g dose. Surprisingly, this study found no effect of dose on survival time suggesting a possible lack of homogeneity within the inoculum. All clinical BSE cases showed PrPd accumulation in brain; however, following cattle BSE inoculation, LRS involvement within Romney recipients was found to be significantly lower than within the Suffolk sheep inoculated group which is in agreement with previous reports.



Susceptibility of European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus) to Alimentary Challenge with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy


Mark P. Dagleish, Stuart Martin, Philip Steele, Jeanie Finlayson, Samantha L. Eaton, Sílvia Sisó, Paula Stewart, Natalia Fernández-Borges, … Scott Hamilton, Yvonne Pang




Published: January 23, 2015 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116094



I strenuously once again urge the FDA and its industry constituents, to make it MANDATORY that all ruminant feed be banned to all ruminants, and this should include all cervids as soon as possible for the following reasons...




In the USA, under the Food and Drug Administrations BSE Feed Regulation (21 CFR 589.2000) most material (exceptions include milk, tallow, and gelatin) from deer and elk is prohibited for use in feed for ruminant animals. With regards to feed for non-ruminant animals, under FDA law, CWD positive deer may not be used for any animal feed or feed ingredients. For elk and deer considered at high risk for CWD, the FDA recommends that these animals do not enter the animal feed system.


***However, this recommendation is guidance and not a requirement by law.




31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT


*** Ruminant feed ban for cervids in the United States? ***


31 Jan 2015 at 20:14 GMT



*** we have had a mad cow feed ban in place since August 1997, and since then, literally 100s of millions of pounds BANNED MAD COW FEED has been sent out to commerce and fed out (see reference materials).




so, in my opinion, any non-binding or voluntary regulations will not work, and to state further, ‘BINDING’ or MANDATORY regulations will not work unless enforced.


with that said, we know that Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion easily transmits to other cervid through the oral route.


the old transmission studies of BSE TSE floored scientist once they figured out what they had, and please don’t forget about those mink that were fed 95%+ dead stock downer cow, that all came down with TME. please see ;


It is clear that the designing scientists must also have shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.



it is clear that the designing scientists must have also shared Mr Bradleys surprise at the results because all the dose levels right down to 1 gram triggered infection.






Sunday, March 20, 2016


Docket No. FDA-2003-D-0432 (formerly 03D-0186) Use of Material from Deer and Elk in Animal Feed ***UPDATED MARCH 2016*** Singeltary Submission



Monday, March 28, 2016


National Scrapie Eradication Program February 2016 Monthly Report



*** Docket No. APHIS-2007-0127 Scrapie in Sheep and Goats Terry Singeltary Sr. Submission ***


Monday, November 16, 2015


*** Docket No. APHIS-2007-0127 Scrapie in Sheep and Goats Terry Singeltary Sr. Submission ***




Friday, March 18, 2016 CFSAN


Constituent Update: FDA Announces Final Rule on Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy BSE MAD COW TSE PRION Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition - Constituent Update



Tuesday, March 15, 2016


Docket No. FDA-2016-N-0321 Risk Assessment of Foodborne Illness Associated with Pathogens from Produce Grown in Fields Amended with Untreated Biological Soil Amendments of Animal Origin; Request for Comments, Scientific Data, and Information Singeltary Submission



Thursday, March 24, 2016





Sunday, October 5, 2014


France stops BSE testing for Mad Cow Disease



***atypical spontaneous BSE in France LOL***


FRANCE STOPS TESTING FOR MAD COW DISEASE BSE, and here’s why, to many spontaneous events of mad cow disease $$$


If you Compare France to other Countries with atypical BSE, in my opinion, you cannot explain this with ‘spontaneous’.


Table 1: Number of Atypical BSE cases reported by EU Member States in the period 2001–2014 by country and by type (L- and H-BSE) (extracted from EU BSE databases on 1 July 2014). By 2015, these data might be more comprehensive following a request from the European Commission to Member States for re-testing and retrospective classification of all positive bovine isolates in the EU in the years 2003–2009


BSE type


Country 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013(a) 2014(a) Total


H-BSE Austria 1 1


France(b) 1 2 3 1 2 2 2 2 15


Germany 1 1 2


Ireland 1 1 2 1 5


The Netherlands 1 1


Poland 1 1 2


Portugal 1 1


Spain 1 1 2


Sweden 1 1


United Kingdom 1 1 1 1 1 5


Total 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 5 1 4 1 35


L-BSE Austria 1 1 2


Denmark 1 1


France(b) 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 14


Germany 1 1 2


Italy 1 1 1 1 1 5


The Netherlands 1 1 1 3


Poland 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 12


Spain 2 2


United Kingdom 1 1 1 1 4


Total 0 5 3 4 3 3 6 3 3 4 3 6 1 1 45


Total Atypical cases (H + L)


2 8 6 5 4 5 8 5 7 8 8 7 5 2 80


(a): Data for 2013-2014 are incomplete and may not include all cases/countries reported.


(b): France has performed extensive retrospective testing to classify BSE cases, which is probably the explanation for the higher number of Atypical BSE cases reported in this country.


The number of Atypical BSE cases detected in countries that have already identified them seems to be similar from year to year. In France, a retrospective study of all TSE-positive cattle identified through the compulsory EU surveillance between 2001 and 2007 indicated that the prevalence of H-BSE and L-BSE was 0.35 and 0.41 cases per million adult cattle tested, respectively, which increased to 1.9 and 1.7 cases per million, respectively, in tested animals over eight years old (Biacabe et al., 2008). No comprehensive study on the prevalence of Atypical BSE cases has yet been carried out in other EU Member States. All cases of Atypical BSE reported in the EU BSE databases have been identified by active surveillance testing (59 % in fallen stock, 38 % in healthy slaughtered cattle and 4 % in emergency slaughtered cattle). Cases were reported in animals over eight years of age, with the exception of two cases (one H-BSE and one L-BSE) detected in Spain in 2011/2012. One additional case of H-BSE was detected in Switzerland in 2012 in a cow born in Germany in 2005 (Guldimann et al., 2012).




Wednesday, July 15, 2015


Additional BSE TSE prion testing detects pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc by PMCA only, how many cases have we missed?



***however in 1 C-type challenged animal, Prion 2015 Poster Abstracts S67 PrPsc was not detected using rapid tests for BSE.


***Subsequent testing resulted in the detection of pathologic lesion in unusual brain location and PrPsc detection by PMCA only.


*** IBNC Tauopathy or TSE Prion disease, it appears, no one is sure ***


Posted by Terry S. Singeltary Sr. on 03 Jul 2015 at 16:53 GMT



*** Singeltary reply ; Molecular, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of BSE in Canada Singeltary reply ;



*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***


Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan.


*** This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada.


*** It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries. ***


see page 176 of 201 pages...tss



Evidence That Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy Results from Feeding Infected Cattle


Over the next 8-10 weeks, approximately 40% of all the adult mink on the farm died from TME.




The rancher was a ''dead stock'' feeder using mostly (>95%) downer or dead dairy cattle...



Saturday, February 6, 2016


Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting [Docket No. APHIS-2016-0007] Singeltary Submission



Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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